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Journal > Jurnal Hortikultura > Studi Pengaruh Substitusi Hara Makro dan Mikro Media MS dengan Pupuk Majemuk dalam Kultur In Vitro Krisan

 

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Jurnal Hortikultura
Vol 22, No 4 (2012): Desember
Studi Pengaruh Substitusi Hara Makro dan Mikro Media MS dengan Pupuk Majemuk dalam Kultur In Vitro Krisan
Article Info   ABSTRACT
Published date:
01 Aug 2013
 
Studi substitusi hara makro dan mikro media Murashige & Skoog (MS) menggunakan pupuk majemuk untuk meningkatkan efisiensi kultur in vitro krisan (Dendranthema grandiflora) dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan, Kebun Percobaan Cipanas, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias (Balithi) dari Bulan Januari hingga Desember 2010. Aplikasi pupuk majemuk sebagai substitusi hara makro-mikro MS diharapkan dapat menurunkan biaya produksi benih melalui kultur in vitro, khususnya dalam penyediaan media tanam. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh varietas dan kombinasi pupuk majemuk dalam meningkatkan efisiensi aplikasi kultur in vitro krisan. Varietas yang diuji ialah D. grandiflora cv. Dwina Kencana dan Pasopati, sementara pupuk majemuk yang digunakan ialah Hyponex Hijau (20:20:20), Hyponex Merah (25:5:20), dan Growmore (32:10:10) dengan komposisi uji (1) media ½ MS + 0,1 mg/l indole acetic acid (IAA) sebagai kontrol, (2) 1 g/l Hyponex Hijau + 0,1 mg/l IAA, (3) 2 g/l Hyponex Hijau + 0,1 mg/l IAA, (4) 3 g/l Hyponex Hijau + 0,1 mg/l IAA 0,1, (5) 1 g/l Hyponex Merah + 0,1 mg/l IAA, (6) 2 g/l Hyponex Merah + 0,1 mg/l IAA, (7) 3 g/l Hyponex Merah + 0,1 mg/l IAA, (8) 1 g/l Growmore + 0,1 mg/l IAA, (9) 2 g/l Growmore + 0,1 mg/l IAA, dan (10) 3 g/l Growmore + 0,1 mg/l IAA. Percobaan disusun menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok pola faktorial dengan tiga ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jenis varietas dan media kultur berpengaruh terhadap keberhasilan kultur in vitro krisan. Varietas Dwina Kencana memiliki respons pertumbuhan yang lebih baik dibanding varietas Pasopati. Konsentrasi 3 g/l Hyponex Hijau yang ditambah dengan 0,1 mg/l IAA merupakan medium pengganti medium ½ MS terbaik yang mampu mendukung pertumbuhan eksplan pada Dwina Kencana maupun Pasopati. Pada umur 8 minggu setelah kultur, perlakuan tersebut memberikan rerata terbaik jumlah daun, jumlah nodus, jumlah akar, panjang akar, dan berat basah planlet. Aplikasi medium tersebut mampu menekan biaya penyediaan medium kultur per liter hingga 34,7% dibanding biaya penyediaan medium ½ MS yang mencapai Rp6.561,00 per liter. Aplikasi hasil penelitian ini memberikan dampak positif terhadap efisiensi biaya produksi kultur  in vitro  krisan, khususnya terkait dengan penyediaan media kultur. Study on Murashige & Skoog (MS) macro-micro element substitution using compound fertilizers to increase in vitro culture efficiency of chrysanthemum was carried out at Tissue Culture Laboratory, Cipanas Research Garden, Indonesian Ornamental Plant Research Institute from January to December 2010. Application of compound fertilizers to substitute MS macro-micro elements expected can reduce in vitro culture seed production cost and keep well growth of chrysanthemum explants. The study was aimed to know the effect of chrysanthemum varieties and concentrations of the compound fertilizers in increasing the efficiency of in vitro culture of chrysanthemum. Two varieties i.e. Dwina Kencana and Pasopati; the fertilizers of Green Hyponex (20:20:20), Red Hyponex (25:5:20), and Growmore (32:10:10) in different concentrations i.e. (1) half-strength MS medium + 0.1 mg/l indole acetic acid (IAA) as control, (2) 1 g/l Green Hyponex + 0.1 mg/l IAA, (3) 2 g/l Green Hyponex + 0.1 mg/l IAA, (4) 3 g/l Green Hyponex + 0.1 mg/l IAA 0.1, (5) 1 g/l Red Hyponex + 0,1 mg/l IAA, (6) 2 g/l Red Hyponex + 0.1 mg/l IAA, (7) 3 g/l Red Hyponex + 0.1 mg/l IAA, (8) 1 g/l Growmore + 0.1 mg/l IAA, (9) 2 g/l Growmore + 0.1 mg/l IAA, and (10) 3 g/l Growmore + 0.1 mg/l IAA were tested in the study. Factorial experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results of the study indicated that type of variety and media culture gave significant effect on in vitro culture of chrysanthemum explant. Dwina Kencana variety indicated higher response compared to Pasopati. Concentration of 3 g/l Green Hyponex supplemented with 0,1 mg/l IAA was the most appropriate substitution medium for able to substitute for half-strength MS that gave the highest positive effect on explant growth of both varieties. In 8 weeks after culture, the treatment gave better average results on leaf number, node number, root number, root length, and plantlet fresh weight. The 3 g/l Green Hyponex containing 0.1 mg/l IAA was also successfully reduce medium cost per liter up to 34.7% compared to the half-strength MS medium cost per liter that could reach Rp6,561.00 per liter. Application of the research result will give positive effect on efficiency of in vitro culture of chrysanthemum production cost, especially in culture medium preparation.
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