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Journal > Jurnal Hortikultura > Kemangkusan Biobakterisida terhadap Penyakit Busuk Lunak (Pseudomonas viridiflava) pada Phalaenopsis

 

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Jurnal Hortikultura
Vol 22, No 4 (2012): Desember
Kemangkusan Biobakterisida terhadap Penyakit Busuk Lunak (Pseudomonas viridiflava) pada Phalaenopsis
Article Info   ABSTRACT
Published date:
01 Aug 2013
 
Penyakit busuk lunak yang disebabkan oleh Pseudomonas viridiflava merupakan salah satu kendala utama dalam budidaya anggrek Phalaenopsis di Indonesia. Sampai saat ini belum ditemukan teknik pengendalian penyakit tersebut yang paling efektif. Penggunaan biobakterisida sudah diterapkan di luar negeri untuk menekan penyakit busuk lunak pada Phalaenopsis. Tujuan penelitian ialah : (1) jenis bakteri antagonis yang digunakan sebagai bahan aktif biobakterisida, (2) formula biopestisida yang efektif mengendalikan  penyakit busuk lunak (PBL) pada anggrek  Phalaenopsis,  (3) mendapatkan informasi mekanisme penekanan bakteri antagonis, dan (4) memperoleh informasi kerapatan populasi bakteri antagonis yang mengkolonisasi pada daun setelah mendapat perlakuan biobakterisida. Percobaan dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Bakteriologi dan  Rumah Kaca Biokontrol, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias Segunung pada Bulan Januari hingga Desember 2011. Isolat bakteri antagonis nomor  B7 dan B30 disuspensikan ke dalam air steril dan bahan pembawa organik yang mengandung karbohidrat  dan  protein minimal, karbohidrat, dan protein optimal.  Selanjutnya formula tersebut masing-masing diaplikasikan pada daun  Phalaenopsis (metode spraying) sehari sebelum atau setelah inokulasi patogen busuk lunak (cara pin pricking). Rancangan yang digunakan  ialah acak kelompok dengan 15 perlakuan dan tiga ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa  (1) bakteri antagonis no. B7 dan B30 yang digunakan sebagai bahan aktif biobakterisida digolongkan ke dalam genus Bacillus sp., (2) suspensi bakteri antagonis no. B7 dalam bahan organik yang mengandung karbohidrat dan protein minimal dan diaplikasikan 1 hari sebelum inokulasi dapat menekan serangan PBL dengan persentase penekanan sebesar 33,45%, (3) mekanisme penekanan  penyakit oleh biobakterisida dipengaruhi oleh derajat kolonisasi bakteri anatagonis pada daun anggrek dan efek antibiosis, dan (4) kerapatan populasi bakteri antagonis sebelum aplikasi ialah 9+7x102 cfu/g, selanjutnya meningkat menjadi 8+3 x 103 cfu/g daun selama 3 hari. Aplikasi biobakterisida berbahan aktif bakteri antagonis diharapkan dapat meningkatkan pendapatan petani anggrek dan  mendorong pengembangan industri biobakterisida berbasis sumber daya lokal. Soft rot caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava is one of the most important diseases on  Phalaenopsis production in Indonesia. Untill  now, the effective technique to control the disease  has not been found yet. Meanwhile biobactericide has been widely applied in other countries. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine type of antagonist bacteria used as biobactericide active material, (2)  biopesticide formula wich were effective to control soft rot disease, (3) to get information mechanism of suppressing on antagonist bacteria, and (4)  to examine the population density that colonized on Phalaenopsis orchid leaves  having treated. The study was conducted at Bacteriology Laboratory and Biocontrol Glasshouse of the Indonesian Ornamental Plant Research Institute, started from January to December 2011. Antagonist bacteria isolates no. B7 and B30 were suspended on the sterile water and the organic materials containing minimum or optimum of protein and carbohydrates, respectively. Then those biobactericides were applicated by spraying to the leaves of Phalaenopsis orchids  the day before or after the soft rot inoculation (by pin pricking method). A randomized block design with 15 treatments and three replications  was used in this study. The results showed that (1) antagonist bacteria no. B7 and B30  used as biobactericide active material were grouping in to the Bacillus sp. genus (2) antagonist bacteria isolate no. B7 that suspended in an organic material  containing minimum of carbohydrate-protein was applied 1 day before inoculation (treatment of a1f1 b7) was effective to control P. viridiflava with suppressing at 33.45%, (3) suppressing  mode rate of action of this treatment to suppress this pathogen  was  influenced by the degree of colonization and antibiosis reactions, and (4) the population density of such treatment before application was  9+7 x 102 cfu/g and increased to 8+3 x 103 cfu/g leaf during 3 days. The application of the biobactericides was quite promising  to increase orchids farmers‘ income and to push the development of  national resources  based biobactericide industry.
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