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Journal > Jurnal Hortikultura > Peningkatan Pertumbuhan dan Regenerasi Eksplan Hasil Kultur Anther Anthurium Melalui Perbaikan Media Kultur

 

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Jurnal Hortikultura
Vol 20, No 4 (2010): Desember 2010
Peningkatan Pertumbuhan dan Regenerasi Eksplan Hasil Kultur Anther Anthurium Melalui Perbaikan Media Kultur
Article Info   ABSTRACT
Published date:
02 Aug 2013
 
ABSTRAK. Regenerasi kalus merupakan bagian yang paling sulit dalam kultur anther anthurium (Anthuriumandraeanum), karena respons pembentukan tunas yang lambat. Studi pertumbuhan dan regenerasi eksplan hasil kulturanther anthurium pada media regenerasi yang berbeda dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan Balai PenelitianTanaman Hias dari bulan Januari sampai Desember 2008. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui respons pertumbuhandan regenerasi variasi eksplan hasil kultur anther anthurium pada media regenerasi yang berbeda. Penelitian inimenggunakan kalus tumbuh lambat, kalus haploid, daun, dan petiol muda tanaman haploid sebagai eksplan. MediumWinarto (MW) dan Winarto-Rachmawati (MWR) merupakan media dasar yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini.Penelitian terdiri atas tiga percobaan untuk mempelajari pertumbuhan dan regenerasi, yaitu (1) kalus tumbuh lambat,(2) kalus haploid pada media regenerasi yang berbeda (MR-1 s/d MR-6), dan (3) daun dan petiol muda dari tanamanhaploid menggunakan medium regenerasi terseleksi. Percobaan pertama dan kedua disusun menggunakan rancanganacak lengkap (RAL), sementara percobaan ketiga disusun menggunakan RAL pola faktorial masing-masing denganempat ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan dan kemampuan regenerasi eksplan hasil kulturanther anthurium berhasil ditingkatkan melalui perbaikan media kultur. Pertumbuhan kalus terbaik dari eksplan kalustumbuh lambat ditemukan pada MR-4, sedang kalus haploid pada MR-1. Jumlah bakal tunas per eksplan mencapaisekitar 20 bakal tunas, tetapi pembentukan tunas tertinggi yaitu 4,8 tunas per eksplan ditemukan pada MR-6. Daunmuda tanaman haploid no. 400 merupakan jenis eksplan dan tanaman haploid dengan respons pembentukan tunastertinggi yang mencapai 6,0 tunas per eksplan dibandingkan eksplan dan tanaman haploid yang lain. Media terseleksihasil penelitian dapat diaplikasikan untuk menyelesaikan masalah regenerasi eksplan pada kultur in vitro anthuriumyang lain.ABSTRACT. Winarto, B. 2010. Increase of Growth and Explants Regeneration Derived from Anther Cultureof Anthurium via the Improvement of Culture Medium. Callus regeneration was an important problem in antherculture of anthurium due to slow response in shoot regeneration. A study of growth and regeneration of explantsderived from anther culture of anthurium in different regeneration media were conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratoryof Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute from January to December 2008. The objective of the researchwas to determine the growth and regeneration of explants on different regeneration media. Slow growth, haploidcallus, young leaf, and petiole of different haploid plants were used in the study, while media of MW and MWRwere two basic media applied in the experiment. There were three experiments in the research i.e. to study thegrowth and regeneration of (1) slow growth, (2) haploid callus on different regeneration media, and (3) young leafand petiole of different haploid plants on selected regeneration medium. The experiment I and II were arranged witha completely randomized design (CRD) and the experiment III used factorial CRD with four replications. Resultsof the studies indicated that growth and regeneration capacity of explants derived from anther culture of anthuriumwere successfully increased via culture medium improvement. The best growth response of slow growth callus wasdetermined on MR-4, while haploid callus was on MR-1. Initial shoots produced per explant were up to ± 20 initialshoots, but the highest shoot number up to 4.8 shoots produced per explant was established on MR-6. Young leavesof haploid plant no. 400 were the appropriate explant and the donor plant in obtaining the highest callus formation,growth and regeneration with 6.0 shoots per explant. The selected media established in the study can be applied toovercome explant regeneration problems in in vitro culture of other anthuriums.
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