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Journal > Jurnal Hortikultura > Formulasi Biopestisida Berbahan Aktif Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, dan Corynebacterium sp. Nonpatogenik untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Karat pada Krisan

 

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Jurnal Hortikultura
Vol 20, No 3 (2010): September 2010
Formulasi Biopestisida Berbahan Aktif Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, dan Corynebacterium sp. Nonpatogenik untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Karat pada Krisan
Article Info   ABSTRACT
Published date:
02 Aug 2013
 
ABSTRAK. Karat putih yang disebabkan oleh Puccinia horiana merupakan salah satu penyakit pada krisan yangdapat menimbulkan kehilangan hasil sampai 100% . Selama ini untuk mengendalikan patogen tersebut, petani seringmenggunakan pestisida kimiawi. Hal tersebut sangat mengkhawatirkan mengingat penggunaan fungisida sintetiksecara berlebihan dapat mencemari lingkungan yang membahayakan bagi kehidupan makhluk hidup. Oleh karenaitu, cara pengendalian alternatif yang efektif dan aman bagi lingkungan diperlukan untuk mengendalikan penyakitkarat putih pada krisan. Salah satu alternatif cara pengendalian penyakit karat yaitu dengan mengaplikasikanbiopestisida yang ramah lingkungan. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium, rumah kaca, dan rumah plastik KebunPercobaan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias (1.100 m dpl), pada bulan April 2009 sampai Februari 2010. Tiga spesiesbakteri antagonis sebagai bahan aktif biopestisida (Bacillus subtilis Cs 1a, Corynebacterium sp.1, dan Pseudomonasflurescens 3 Sm) dan bahan pembawa (campuran antara ekstrak kascing, molase, gula pasir, dan atau kentang),masing-masing diformulasi dalam 12 jenis formula biopestisida cair. Formulasi biopestisida difermentasikan selama3 minggu dalam keadaan aerobik menggunakan biofermentor. Viabilitas bahan aktif dalam bahan pembawa diujisetiap bulan, yaitu pada periode sebelum dan sesudah fermentasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa populasi bahanaktif setelah difermentasi selama 3 minggu selalu meningkat, populasi bahan aktif sebelum fermentasi sejumlah 105cfu/ml meningkat menjadi 106-7 cfu/ml. Dua bulan setelah fermentasi, populasi bahan aktif biopestisida masih tetaptinggi yaitu berkisar antara 106-11 cfu/ml. Perlakuan ekstrak kascing + gula pasir + B. subtilis + P. fluorescens +Corynebacterium pada tingkat konsentrasi 0,3% merupakan perlakuan terbaik. Disamping dapat menekan intensitasserangan P. horiana (38,49%), formulasi biopestisida tersebut juga dapat menaikkan hasil panen bunga krisan layakjual sebanyak 14,58%.ABSTRACT. Hanudin, W. Nuryani, E. Silvia, I. Djatnika, and B. Marwoto. 2010. Formulation of BiopesticideContaining Bacilllus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Corynebacterium sp. for Controlling WhiteRust Disease on Chrysanthemum. White rust caused by Puccinia horiana is one of the contagious diseases ofchrysanthemum that is able to cause yield losses up to 100%. Chemical synthetic fungicides have been used tocontrol the disease. Because of harmful effects of the synthetic fungicides, the other alternative measure to controlthe disease have to be developed in order to support the sustainable farming system. One of the recommended controlmeasures is the application of biopesticide which is environmentaly friendly. The experiments were conducted inthe laboratory, glasshouse, and plastichouse of Indonesia Ornamental Crops Research Institute (1,100 m asl), fromApril 2009–February 2010. Three candidates of biocontrol agents, i.e. B. subtilis Cs 1a, Corynebacterium sp.1, andP. fluorescens 3 Sm, were formulated with organic basal medium made from fermented worm manure, molasses,sugar, and or potatoes extracts. Twelve formulations were tested for their effectiveness to control the disease in thefield. The viability of the biocontrol agents in the formulations was monthly tested before and after fermentationprocess during storage. Population of the biocontrol agents, after fermentation for 3 weeks was increased from 105to 106-7 cfu/ml. Two months after fermentation the population of the biocontrol agents was still high (106-11 cfu/ml).The results showed that the formulation of vermicompost + sugar + B. subtilis + P. fluorescens + Corynebacteriumat the concentration level of 0.3%, was proven to be the best treatment. The treatment was effective to supress whiterust up to 38.49%, and could also increase the yield of marketable chrysanthemum flowers up to 14.58%.
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