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Journal > Aspirator > Beberapa aspek bioekologi Anopheles spp. di Desa Karuni Kecamatan Laura Kabupaten Sumba Barat Daya Nusa Tenggara Timur

 

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Aspirator
Vol.7 No.2 Desember 2015
Beberapa aspek bioekologi Anopheles spp. di Desa Karuni Kecamatan Laura Kabupaten Sumba Barat Daya Nusa Tenggara Timur
Article Info   ABSTRACT
Published date:
18 Dec 2015
 
Abstract. Karuni village is located in work area of Radamata clinic in West North Sumba regency, which has AMI of 155,37‰ in 2010, and 86,91‰ in 2011. The diversity of Anopheles spp. determines the malaria incidence and control; therefore bioecology research of Anopheles spp. was conducted. Data was collected by cross sectional method, the population used is the whole Anopheles spp. that exists in Karuni village and the sample is Anopheles spp. that were caught and observed in breeding habitat.  Adult mosquitoes data collection was conducted by human bait collection and resting method, pre adult mosquitoes collection captured in breeding habitat such as buffalo wallow, rice field, gutter, swamp and ex pond. The species found were An. vagus, An. aconitus and An. barbirostris. Based on night catching collection, 5 species were found, those are An. aconitus, An. tesselatus, An. annularis, An. vagus and An. barbirostris. An. aconitus has the highest Man Hour Density compared to the other four species (MHD=0.67 man/hour) at 10-11 pm, Anopheles vagus has the second highest Man Hour Density (MHD=0.58 man/hour) at 9-10 pm. The average of Anopheles MHD is 0.02-0.17, most of the mosquitoes found from inside the house collection and cattle cage collection. In conclusion, the breeding places that were found in this research are a suitable habitat for breeding Anopheles larvae. The behavior of Anopheles spp. tends to be endofagic and exofilic. Control efforts of Anopeheles spp. is carried out by chemical controlling, biologic and physical environmental controlling. Keywords: bioecology, Anopheles spp., Karuni Village Abstrak. Desa Karuni terletak di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Radamata Kabupaten Sumba Barat Daya mempunyai AMI tahun 2010 sebesar 155,37‰, tahun 2011 sebesar 86,91‰. Keragaman Anopheles spp. sangat menentukan insiden dan pengendalian malaria, maka dilakukan penelitian Bioekologi Anopheles spp. Pengumpulan data dilakukan secara cross sectional, dengan populasi semua Anopheles spp. yang ada di Desa Karuni dan sampel semua Anopheles spp.adalah nyamuk pradewasa tertangkap dan observasi habitat perkembangbiakan. Pengumpulan data melalui metode koleksi umpan badan orang luar, dalam dan istirahat. Pencidukan larva Anopheles spp. ditemukan adalah kubangan kerbau, sawah, selokan, rawa, pencidukan dalam bekas kolam ikan dengan spesiesnya adalah An. vagus, An. aconitus dan  An. barbirostris. Penangkapan malam hari ditemukan 5 spesies yaitu An. aconitus, An. tesselatus, An. annularis, An. vagus dan An. barbirostris. An. aconitus aktivitas menghisap darah paling tinggi dibandingkan 4 spesies lainnya yaitu pada jam 22.00-23.00 (MHD=0,67 orang/jam), diikuti An. vagus pada jam 21.00-22.00 (MHD=0,58 orang/jam). Fluktuasi menghisap darah Anopheles spp. rata-rata sebesar 0,02-0,17, dominan dijumpai pada umpan orang dalam dan di sekitar kandang. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah habitat yang ditemukan cocok bagi perkembangbiakan larva Anopheles spp, perilaku Anopheles spp. cenderung bersifat endofagik dan eksofilik. Upaya pengendalian Anopeheles spp. dengan pengendalian secara kimiawi, biologis dan pengendalian lingkungan fisik. Kata Kunci : bioekologi, Anopheles spp., Desa Karuni
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