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Journal > Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri > KERAGAMAN FENOTIPE DAN GENETIK TIGA VARIETAS KELAPA GENJAH KOPYOR ASAL PATI JAWA TENGAH

 

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Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri
Vol 21, No 1 (2015): Maret 2015
KERAGAMAN FENOTIPE DAN GENETIK TIGA VARIETAS KELAPA GENJAH KOPYOR ASAL PATI JAWA TENGAH
MASKROMO, ISMAIL ( Balai Penelitian Tanaman Palma Jalan Raya Mapanget, Manado 95001)
TENDA, ELSJE T. ( Balai Penelitian Tanaman Palma Jalan Raya Mapanget, Manado 95001)
TULALO, MEITY A. ( Balai Penelitian Tanaman Palma Jalan Raya Mapanget, Manado 95001)
NOVARIANTO, HENGKY ( Balai Penelitian Tanaman Palma Jalan Raya Mapanget, Manado 95001)
SUKMA, DEWI ( Plant Molecular Biology (PMB) Laboratorium, Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura, Fakultas Pertanian, IPB Jalan Meranti, Kampus Dramaga, Bogor 16680)
SUKENDAH, SUKENDAH ( Departemen Agroteknologi, Fakultas Pertanian, UPN Veteran Surabaya Jalan Raya Rungkut, Surabaya 60294)
SUDARSONO, SUDARSONO ( Plant Molecular Biology (PMB) Laboratorium, Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura, Fakultas Pertanian, IPB Jalan Meranti, Kampus Dramaga, Bogor 16680)
Article Info   ABSTRACT
Published date:
08 Apr 2016
 
ABSTRAKKelapa Genjah kopyor asal Pati, Jawa Tengah merupakankekayaaan hayati asli Indonesia dengan nilai ekonomi tinggi. Informasikeragaman genetik kelapa kopyor masih terbatas. Data keragamanmorfologi dan genetik diperlukan dalam program pemuliaan kelapakopyor. Penelitian ini mempelajari keragaman tiga varietas kelapa genjahkopyor asal Pati yang telah dilepas berdasarkan karakter morfologi,kuantitas endosperma, dan keragaman alel marka SSR. Penelitiandilakukan di Pati dan di Laboratorium Plant Molecular Biology,Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura, IPB. Evaluasi dilakukan terhadaptiga populasi kelapa Genjah kopyor (hijau, coklat, dan kuning) dengan 30tanaman sampel untuk setiap populasi. Rataan data morfologi digunakanuntuk menyusun dendogram. Kuantitas endosperma diamati pada satubuah kelapa kopyor per tanaman yang dievaluasi. Karakteristikendosperma dikelompokkan sesuai kategori yang telah ditetapkan. Untuksetiap populasi, analisis marka dengan lima pasang primer SSR dilakukanpada 10 tanaman sampel. Data yang didapat digunakan untuk menentukankeragaman genetik kelapa Genjah kopyor asal Pati. Hasil pengamatanmenunjukkan keragaman morfologis dan alel SSR antar tanaman dalamvarietasnya (keragaman intra-varietas) rendah. Sebaliknya, keragamanmorfologis dan alel SSR antar varietasnya tinggi. Kuantitas endospermakelapa Genjah kopyor asal Pati bervariasi antara skor 1–6. Keragamangenetik yang rendah dalam varietas dan tinggi antar ketiga varietas (coklat,hijau, dan kuning) memperkuat pelepasan ketiganya sebagai varietas lokal.Selain itu, keragaman genetik antar tanaman dalam varietas yang rendahmendukung penggunaan ketiga varietas lokal sebagai tetua dalam programperakitan varietas kelapa kopyor unggul baru. Tetua yang dipilih dapatdiseleksi intra-varietas berdasarkan persentase buah kopyor per tandandan skor kuantitas endosperma yang tinggi.Kata kunci: Keragaman morfologis, keragaman intra dan antar varietas,kuantitas endospermaABSTRACTKopyor dwarf coconuts are mutants from Pati, Central Java havinghigh economic values. However, morphological and genetic diversities ofthis coconut were still limited. Morphological and genetic diversity dataare needed for breeding program. The research objectives were to evaluateintra and inter-specific diversity based on morphology, endospermquantity, and SSR alleles. Field evaluations were conducted in Pati whilelaboratory activities were at Plant Molecular Biology Laboratory,Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, IPB. Three populations ofkopyor dwarf varieties (brown, green, and yellow) were evaluated. Thirtytrees were sampled for each population. The average of morphologicaldata were used to construct cluster analysis. Endosperm quantity wasscored (0 – 9) based on a single nut sample. Ten palms were analyzedusing five SSR loci for each population and used to determine geneticdiversity of populations. Results of observations indicated intra-varietymorphological and SSR allele variations among kopyor dwarf was low.However, inter-variety variations were high. The endosperm quantityscores among kopyor dwarf coconut ranged from 1–6. The low intra-variety and high inter-variety variations among the three kopyor dwarfcoconut supported their release as different local varieties. Moreover, thelow intra-variety phenotypic and genotypic diversities among kopyorbrown, green, and yellow dwarf coconut support their use as parents fornew and superior kopyor coconut variety development in the future. Forsuch purpose, however, it is necessary to conduct intra-variety selection toidentify desirable parents based on high kopyor fruit percentage per bunchand for high kopyor endosperm quantity.Key words: Morphological diversity, intra and inter variety diversities,quantity, endosperm
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