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Journal > Indonesian Journal of Human Nutrition > Gambaran Masalah Gizi pada 1000 HPK di Kota dan Kabupaten Malang (Illustration of Nutritional Problem in the First 1000 Days of Life in Both City and District of Malang, Indonesia)

 

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Indonesian Journal of Human Nutrition
Vol 3, No 1 (2016): Suplemen "Malang Current Issues On Nutrition (MCION)"
Gambaran Masalah Gizi pada 1000 HPK di Kota dan Kabupaten Malang (Illustration of Nutritional Problem in the First 1000 Days of Life in Both City and District of Malang, Indonesia)
Article Info   ABSTRACT
Published date:
01 Jul 2016
 
AbstrakMasa 1000 hari pertama kehidupan (HPK) merupakan masa terpenting dalam daur kehidupan manusia.  Status gizi pada 1000 HPK akan mempengaruhi terhadap  kualitas kesehatan, intelektual dan produktivitas pada masa yang akan datang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji gambaran status gizi pada 1000 HPK di wilayah Kota dan Kabupaten Malang. Penelitian ini menganalisis database dan laporan kegiatan survey gizi (Pre Dietetics Internship, Program Studi Ilmu Gizi-Universitas Brawijaya) di wilayah Kota dan Kabupaten Malang dalam kurun waktu Februari 2012-Februari 2016 dengan sasaran ibu hamil (n 777), ibu menyusui (n 718), bayi (n 638) dan baduta (n 554). Status gizi diukur menggunakan metode antropometri, indikator status gizi ibu hamil: IMT sebelum hamil, LILA dan peningkatan BB/minggu; ibu menyusui: IMT dan LILA; bayi dan baduta: z-score BB/PB, PB/U dan BB/U. Asupan zat gizi diperoleh melalui metode 24h recall. Pola pemberian ASI, MP ASI dan faktor yang mempengaruhi status gizi dikaji menggunakan kuesioner terstruktur. Seluruh data disajikan dalam statistik deskriptif. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa prevalensi masalah gizi pada subyek ibu hamil, menyusui, bayi dan baduta masih tergolong tinggi dan sedang. Sebanyak 18,9% ibu hamil kurus dan 30,3% gemuk di awal kehamilan, serta penambahan BB/minggu kurang=49,3%. Status gizi kurang pada ibu menyusui=8,4%. Kurus dan pendek termasuk kategori “masalah sedang” pada bayi dan baduta (kurus: 7,5% vs. 7,8%; pendek: 21,0% vs. 21,2%). Prosentase pemberian ASI termasuk tinggi (94,4%), namun pemberian prelakteal dan MP ASI dini tinggi (52,8% dan 66,5%), dan ASI Eksklusif rendah (28,8%). Masalah gizi di Kota dan Kabupaten Malang masih merupakan tantangan untuk diatasi.Kata Kunci: status gizi, ibu hamil, ibu menyusui, baduta, ASI Eksklusif AbstractThe first 1000 day of life is the most important period in human life. Nutritional status during this period highly influences the quality of health, cognitive and productivity in the future. This research aims to assess the nutritional status of the first 1000 days in City and District of Malang. This research analyses the database and report of nutritional survey (Pre Dietetics Internship, Nutritional Study Program University of Brawijaya) in area of City and District Malang from February 2012-February 2016. The research subjects included pregnant women (n 777), lactating mother (n 718), infant (n 638) and children under two year (n 554). Nutritional status was measured by using anthropometry method, with indicators for pregnant women: BMI pre pregnancy, MUAC and pregnancy weight gain; for lactating mother: BMI and MUAC; infant and under two year children: z-score weight-for-length, length-for-age dan weight-for-age. Nutrient intake was obtained by using 24h recall. Breastfeeding pattern, complementary feeding practice, and factors associated with nutritional status were collected by using structured questionnaire. All data was presented using descriptive statistics. Result shows that nutritional problem among pregnant women, lactating mother, infant and children under two year children was categorized into high and medium. There were 18,9% and 30,3% of pregnant women entering their pregnancy with underweight and overweight problem; and 49,3% low pregnancy weight gain. The percentage of underweight in lactating mother was  8,4%. Wasting and stunting in infant and children under two year were categorized as “medium problem” (wasting: 7,5% vs. 7,8%; stunting: 21,0% vs. 21.2%). There was 94,4% of infant receiving breastmilk. However exclussive breastfeeding practice only accounted for  28,8%, since there were 52,8% dan 66,5% of them received prelacteal and early complementary food. Nutritional problems in City and District Malang are still a challange and need to resolve.Keyword:  nutritional status, pregnant women, lactating mother, children under two year old, exclusive brestfeeding 
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